卡诺拉菜粕:奶牛最适合的蛋白质饲料

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         植物性蛋白是奶牛日粮中氨基酸的主要来源。基于市场区域的差异,营养师可以选择不同的蛋白质饲料原料,与其他原料配合以满足奶牛对养分的需要。对蛋白质饲料原料的选择各有利弊,但于奶牛生产性能更为有利的是卡诺拉菜粕。表1列举了2005年以来卡诺拉菜粕与其他植物性蛋白饲料的比较结果,数据显示:卡诺拉菜粕等同于其他优质的植物性蛋白,且多数报告显示卡诺拉菜粕更有利于提升奶牛产奶量。

 

1. 植物性蛋白饲料与奶牛日产奶量(kg)

卡诺拉菜粕

其他植物性

蛋白饲料

差异

参考文献


豆粕



41.1

40.0

+1.1

Brito and Broderick, 2007

31.7

31.7

0

Christen et al., 2010

40.7

39.7

+1.0

Broderick et al., 2012

37.3

36.4

+0.9

Faciola and Broderick, 2013

30.9

31.9

-1.0

Maxin et al., 2013

38.8

38.2

+0.6

Broderick and Faciola, 2014

40.9

38.9

+2.0

Broderick et al., 2015

29.5

30.2

+0.7

Gidlund et al., 2015

39.4

37.6

+1.8

Weiss et al., 2015

40.3

39.4

+0.9

De Paula, 2015

55.7

51.2

+4.5

Moore and Kalscheur, 2016


棉粕



22.3

21.8

+0.5

White et al., 2000

28.0

27.0

+1.0

Maesoomi et al., 2006

41.1

40.5

+0.6

Brito and Broderick, 2007


玉米酒糟



35.2

34.3

+0.9

Mulrooney et al., 2009

31.7

31.2

+0.5

Christen et al., 2010

30.9

32.2

-1.3

Maxin et al., 2013

47.9

44.9

+3.0

Swanepoel et al., 2014

34.9

35.5

-0.6

Acharya et al., 2015


小麦酒糟



45.0

45.0

0

Chibisa et al., 2012

30.9

30.8

+0.1

Maxin et al., 2013

43.4

42.4

+1.0

Mutsvangwa et al., 2016

40.4

40.2

+0.2

Abeysekara and Mutsvangua, 2016


向日葵粕



26.7

25.1

+1.6

Vincent et al., 1990

27.0

26.7

+0.3

Beauchemin et al., 2009


亚麻粕



27.0

26.8

0.2

Beauchemin et al., 2009


啤酒糟



23.4

22.3

+1.1

Moate et al., 2011


普通菜粕



47.1

45.0

+2.1

Hristov et al., 2011

 

         加拿大卡诺拉油菜理事会及加拿大农业部农业创新项目,资助卡诺拉油菜科研集群致力于调查和研究,并确认卡诺拉菜粕对奶牛生产的积极作用。

 

        关于卡诺拉菜粕的营养成分,以前的数据并未真实反映其营养价值,主要有以下三个原因:

1.      卡诺拉油菜是上个世纪七十年代由普通油菜培育而成的油料作物,尽管普通油菜在北美近乎绝迹,但欧洲仍在大面积种植。最先用于菜粕营养价值评定的油菜品种已经消亡,而用于配方的营养成分并未更新,加之普通菜粕和卡诺拉菜粕营养价值经常替换,即使不同榨油厂之间菜粕营养价值的差异也难以体现。

2.      卡诺拉菜粕中蛋白质多为可溶性蛋白。老旧的配方体系将可溶性蛋白等同于可降解蛋白,卡诺拉菜粕中的可溶性蛋白并不会很快降解,进而成为瘤胃非降解蛋白的来源之一。

3.      卡诺拉菜粕中木质素的含量高于其他油料作物加工的籽粕。过去的配方系统以木质素衡量不可消化纤维,过低地估计了卡诺拉菜粕中纤维组分的消化率,因而其能量的估计值也偏低。

 

        加拿大卡诺拉油菜理事会已更新了卡诺拉菜粕的营养成分和饲料价值,编辑整理的结果可以在www.canolamazing.com网站上查询,奶牛生产各阶段的饲养试验结果也在不断更新中。

 

         Moore Kalscheur (2016) 完成了一项泌乳早期的试验。试验用卡诺拉菜粕替代了豆粕,试验结果证实,菜粕组的产奶量比豆粕组高(分别为55.7kg51.9kg),尽管两组之间乳的成分没有差异,但菜粕组牛奶尿氮的浓度比豆粕组更低,说明奶牛在泌乳早期对卡诺拉菜粕的蛋白质利用效率更高。

 

         最近有些研究猜测卡诺拉菜粕的氨基酸组成有助于提升氮的利用效率,几个限制性氨基酸的研究正在进行中。Broderick (2015) 供给泌乳期奶牛高蛋白和低蛋白日粮,其蛋白质饲料为豆粕、卡诺拉菜粕、卡诺拉菜粕+过瘤胃保护的赖氨酸和蛋氨酸,虽然卡诺拉菜粕组的产奶量高于豆粕组,但补充过瘤胃保护的两种氨基酸对产奶量没有明显的提升。与此相反,一项由Liu (2016)完成的研究说明,补充过瘤胃保护的赖氨酸有助于提升产奶量。Swanepoel (2016)查证了补充苯丙胺酸对产奶量的效应,结果说明:采食量同等的情况下,苯丙胺酸补充了利于增重的体能,但对产奶量和奶的组成没有益处。

 

         Faciola Broderick (2013) 调查了卡诺拉菜粕和豆粕与不同比例的苜蓿和玉米青贮料对奶牛泌乳性能的影响。试验没有观察到精饲料蛋白质来源与粗饲料组成或来源之间的交互作用,但卡诺拉菜粕组产奶量和乳蛋白水平高于其他组,而且卡诺拉菜粕的优势效应与粗饲料组成或成分无关。表2列举了该研究的详细数据。 


2. 生产数据

参数

蛋白饲料

苜蓿与玉米青贮配比

p值

豆粕

加拿大

卡诺拉菜粕

5:1

1:1

1:5

蛋白

饲料

干物质采食量,kg

23.5

23.8

23.7

24.0

23.4

0.4

0.42

产奶量, kg/d

36.4

37.3

34.6

37.2

38.7

0.03

<0.01

能量矫正乳, kg/d

35.6

36.1

33.9

36.4

37.2

0.24

<0.01

牛奶 N/N 摄入, %

27.3

27.5

25.1

27.2

29.9

0.66

<0.01

脂肪,   %

4.0

3.94

4.09

3.99

3.82

0.25

<0.01

脂肪, kg/d

1.45

1.46

1.41

1.49

1.47

0.69

0.02

蛋白质, %

3.02

3.02

2.96

3.02

3.07

.092

<0.01

蛋白质, kg/d

1.1

1.12

1.02

1.12

1.19

0.03

<0.01

乳糖, %

4.85

4.84

4.81

4.86

4.87

0.86

0.03

乳糖, kg/d

1.77

1.81

1.66

1.81

1.89

0.07

<0.01

非脂乳固体,  %

8.75

8.74

8.64

8.76

8.83

0.63

<0.01

非乳固体, kg/d

3.19

3.26

2.99

3.26

3.42

0.05

<0.01

乳尿素氮, mg/dL

14.0

12.9

13.8

13.2

13.4

<0.01

0.03

 

         Rezamand(2016)指出,油料作物饼粕中的脂肪酸仅3%,但能够影响与炎症反应有关的基因表达。卡诺拉菜粕中的脂肪酸多为油酸,比亚油酸或亚麻酸更具惰性。在未来的配方体系中,日粮脂肪酸的组成和平衡将会受到重视。

 

         Hadam (2016) 发表了犊牛的饲养试验结果。在犊牛15-35日龄,饲喂三种不同日粮,分别为24%的豆粕、35%的菜粕、12.5%的豆粕+16.5%的菜粕。采食全菜粕组的犊牛日增重低于全豆粕组或豆粕+菜粕组。试验指出,菜粕与豆粕搭配饲喂犊牛,更有助于其生长和增重。

 

         卡诺拉菜粕也是生长期后备母牛合适的蛋白质饲料。Suarez-Mena (2015) 21%14%7%0%的卡诺拉菜粕饲喂后备母牛,并用玉米酒糟替代全部日粮中卡诺拉菜粕。替代后,氮存留(蛋白质沉积)随之下降。与此类似,Nair (2016) 发现,育肥场的母牛更乐意采食含10%卡诺拉菜粕的补充料(与不含卡诺拉菜粕的补充料比较),氮存留也随之改善,

 

         最近关于硫代葡萄糖苷的一些研究结果更好地支持卡诺拉菜粕的应用。卡诺拉菜粕和普通菜粕中硫代葡萄糖苷含量差异很大,但市场上往往将两者混淆。加拿大卡诺拉菜粕中抗营养因子的含量很低,如硫代葡萄糖苷仅8微摩尔/克(平均值),若应用适当的营养体系和配方技术,卡诺拉菜粕在配方中的添加量要远远高于传统菜粕,其营养和经济价值会得到充分的体现。表3列举了加拿大卡诺拉菜粕及加籽在中国加工后卡诺拉菜粕的营养成分。

 

3. 卡诺拉菜粕的化学成分 (水分12%)

成分

加拿大卡诺拉菜粕1

加籽在中国加工的卡诺拉菜粕2

粗蛋白, %

36.70

37.14

乙醚萃取物, %

3.30

2.53

灰分, %

6.70

6.22

, %

0.99

1.01

中性洗剂纤维, %

25.40

21.52

硫代葡萄糖苷, µmol/g

4.20

7.07

1来源于加拿大榨油厂连续三年的调查结果 (Slominski, 2015).

2 来源于2015年冬天在中国境内五个加籽榨油厂所得样品的分析结果.

 

         有关卡诺拉菜粕的研究结果不仅支持饲喂泌乳期奶牛,而且适用于奶牛各个生产阶段。最新的证据指出,卡诺拉菜粕可适用于泌乳早期,同时可饲喂母牛以助其生长。各项研究在不断进行,新见解也不断涌现,编辑、整理后的信息发表在www.canolamazing.com,以期对卡诺拉菜粕的价值,特别是奶牛日粮中的应用有所帮助。

 

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